Valentine M. Moghadam is Professor of Sociology and International Affairs at Northeastern University, Boston. Born in Tehran, Iran, she received her higher education in Canada and the U.S. Her areas of research include globalization, transnational social movements and feminist networks, economic citizenship, and gender and development in the Middle East and North Africa. Among her many publications, Professor Moghadam is author of Modernizing Women: Gender and Social Change in the Middle East (first published 1993; second edition 2003; revised and updated third edition Fall 2013); Globalizing Women: Transnational Feminist Networks (2005), which won the American Political Science Association’s Victoria Schuck award for best book on women and politics for 2005; and Globalization and Social Movements: The Populist Challenge and Democratic Alternatives (2020).She has edited seven books, including Social Policy in the Middle East: Economic, Political, and Gender Dynamics (with Massoud Karshenas, 2006), and Empowering Women after the Arab Spring (with Marwa Shalaby, 2016). A forthcoming book examines the factors and forces behind the divergent outcomes of the Arab Spring.